Author: Rose Kaufman

Drone Mass

Icelandic composer Jóhann Jóhannsson performed his Drone Mass with ACME, the American Contemporary Music Ensemble, and Theatre of Voices. This performance was held at Duke University and was conducted by Donato Cabrera. Drone Mass is a contemporary oratorio with eight movements sung by a vocal ensemble (TOV) accompanied by a string quartet (ACME). The string quartet had one cellist, two violinists, and one violist. The vocal ensemble had two sopranos, one mezzo, one alto, two tenors, and two bass. The movements included a drone produced either by Jóhannsson’s modular synthesizer or by voices and instruments that would mimic the sound of a drone. Jóhannsson’s drone would often produce a deep, rumbling effect. Most, if not all, of the movements were in a natural minor key or mode. The vocalists used limited vibrato and would often continue without rest, producing a haunting or hypnotic effect. The hymn they sang was a series of vowels inspired by Gnostic texts from the Nag Hammadi Library.

In the first movement, voices alternated the theme in F# natural minor. Strings accompanied with a rhythmic bass and then strings played the theme with the voices, and then returned to rhythmic bass, all ending on I7.

The second movements showcased the importance all of voices and instruments. The voices sang vowels on the beat. As the strings and voices alternated in similar repeated themes, never resting together, so it began to sound like a fugue.

The third movement had the first appearance of the drone. A low drone tone on E faded in. Bass sang alongside the drone, then the tenors. Strings slurred in an upward motion producing a very sharp sound like faint squeaking in the background. Then the strings repeated an E natural minor arpeggio as the altos alternated tones of E minors with different vowels. The tenors and bass repeated a syncopated bass rhythm as the drone faded out.

In the fourth movement the bass sang alone, slurring tones in a downward motion and would rest. The cellist slurred tones up and down, pushing hard on the bow, creating a tense, unpleasant sound. The other strings joined in doing the same creating dissonant tones. The bass, tenors, and alto repeated this slurring theme with “Ahs.” The voices then called out and answered with the theme several times, in a crescendo.

The fifth movement was in B minor. One violin repeated a simple 4-note motif and then the cello joined for harmony. The second violin played the theme in sync with the first violin. The violins would gradually go in and out of sync while the cello played its own theme. The voices sang vowels on the tones of B minor.

The sixth movement was more about the dynamics. Voices sing vowels in F major as strings sustain tones for the bass. The violins repeated a melancholy theme in F major. All crescendo then one by one the voices and instruments very gradually decrescendo.

In the seventh movement, the drone fades in on D. Individual voices would take turns connecting one interval to create the melody. The deep, rumbling drone bent in and out of D, becoming more rough and thick before it faded out.

The final movement was in E minor. The voices sounded together in an improvisational way in which no rhythm could be heard. The voices alternated sustained tones from the key of E minor. One voice singing a high A# created an unexpected texture. The cello created a drone effect but would slur in a downward motion from B, scaling down a major third, and then a perfect fifth. Voices in tutti repeated this slur, creating more tension, and suddenly ended on the lone cello on G, slurring down to E, to B, then down to E. This would repeat as violins created an unpleasant high pitch sound. The strings alternated in downward slurring. Voices layered on more texture and dissonance by alternated the same slurring motion but beginning on different tones. One by one the voices would call out different tones of the chromatic scale. The voices fade out and the piece ended as the high pitch strings faded out.

Jóhannsson’s Drone Mass was moving with a sense of stillness and mystery. The vocalists were very good but not as virtuosic as I would expect in a work so vocally focused. This work catered to my love of vocal music from the Baroque era. The drone added foundation and an ancient sound to an otherwise modern work. Jóhannsson is better recognized for his original scores for the films, The Theory of Everything (2014) and Arrival (2016).

Ladysmith Black Mambazo

Rose Kaufman

MSH 334

Collaborative Blog 1

March 6, 2017

Ladysmith Black Mambazo at Carolina Theatre in Durham, North Carolina

The nine Southern African Zulu members of Ladysmith Black Mambazo[i] quietly walked on stage and took their places behind their microphones. One microphone stood in front for the leading tenor and eight microphones stood behind. All members were clothed in matching blue and black dashikis and black trousers.

In their home language, Zulu, the bass, alto, and tenors sang a cappella in major diatonic harmony in the Southern African choral genre, Isicathamiya. I sat in first row of the second balcony and listened to their soft yet sonorous voices resonate throughout the auditorium. Following the first song, one of the tenors introduced the founder and songwriter of the group, Joseph Shabalala[ii]. He then introduced Shabalala’s youngest son, the youngest member of the group, Thamsanqa. He sang lead for their song, “Awu Wemadoda,” a song from a past album that was rerecorded for their newest album, Walking In The Footsteps Of Our Fathers.

In 1960, Joseph Shabalala formed a choir he named Ezimnyama[iii]. By 1965, Shabalala had developed the group into Ladysmith Black Mambazo, an established and competitive Isicathamiya[iv] and mbube group that included only family and friends of Shabalala. It was not until the late 1980s that they began to win Grammys and gained international recognition thanks to their work with Paul Simon on his 1986 album Graceland. In this performance at Carolina Theatre, LBM sang renditions of two songs from Graceland, “Diamonds On The Souls Of Her Shoes” and “Homeless,” which are featured on the new LBM album.

Joseph Shabalala and other members took turns giving short introductions to most songs, sharing the intended messages of each. Their messages were quite succinct when sung in English, including songs such as, “All Women Are Beautiful,” “Tough Times Never Late,” and “Long Walk To Freedom.” While introducing “Long Walk To Freedom,” the lead tenor expressed the song was a celebration of twenty-two years of democracy in South Africa after the end of the Apartheid[v] policy, a system of aggressive racial segregation and discrimination. The song is dedicated to Nelson Mandela and named after his 1994 autobiography. LBM and Mandela supported each other and their efforts to bring peace to South Africa. Mandela even asked LBM to accompany him at several of his ceremonies including his acceptance of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize for human rights.

LBM incorporated light dancing in their performance including hand gesturing and footwork, which seemed to accompany the messages in their songs. They even involved some charming comedic acting to lighten-up the audience. To help the audience embrace their culture, they taught us a few Zulu phrases.

Most of LBM’s songs were in the key of F# with diatonic harmony in a two-octave range of major triads, and a chord progression of I – V – I or I – IV – V – I. The singers would often slur in an upward motion to the first tone of a melodic phrase. The choir sang without a conductor and while most of the songs were in common time with syncopated rhythms, there were also songs that were difficult to measure because they were so expressive. The singers would make great use of their vocals like tongue rolling and click consonants from Southern African languages. They also used the clicks for rhythmic purpose in some of their English language songs. In the midst of songs the members would call out to each other in Zulu, sing birdcalls and other animal sounds, rhythmic humming, and whistling. This expressive form of singing and rhythm could be compared to some of the music we have been studying in class.

LBM’s last song lasted approximately fifteen minutes and was mostly the repetition of one phrase as members took turns having fun with expression, poking fun at each other, dancing, and encouraging the audience to sing along. Many songs were repetitious, repeating the same phrase with little change in dynamics. However, the repeated phrases always had a steady and continuous flow with a rhythmic pulse and a message; a desire for equality, kindness, compassion, and peace.

[i] Ladysmith Black Mambazo

[ii] Joseph Shabalala

[iii] Ezimnyama

[iv] Isicathamiya

[v] Apartheid